This is an informed-consent document that has been prepared to help inform you of mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction surgery, its risks, as well as alternative treatments.
It is important that you read this information carefully and completely. Please initial each page, indicating that you have read the page and sign the consent for surgery as proposed by your plastic surgeon and agreed upon by you.
The mini-abdominoplasty is a surgical procedure to remove excess skin and fatty tissue from the lower abdomen and to tighten muscles of the abdominal wall. Abdominoplasty surgery is not a treatment for being overweight. Obese individuals who intend to lose weight should postpone all forms of body-contouring surgery until they have reached a stable weight.
There are a variety of different techniques used by plastic surgeons for mini-abdominoplasty. The mini-abdominoplasty can be combined with other forms of body-contouring surgery, including suction-assisted lipectomy, or other elective surgeries.
Liposuction is a surgical technique to remove unwanted deposits of fat from specific areas of the body, including the face and neck, upper arms, trunk, abdomen, buttocks, hips and thighs, and the knees, calves and ankles. This is not a substitute for weight reduction, but a method for removing localized deposits of fatty tissue that do not respond to diet or exercise. Liposuction may be performed as a primary procedure for body contouring or combined with other surgical techniques such as facelift, abdominoplasty, or thigh lift procedures to tighten loose skin and supporting structures.
The best candidates for liposuction are individuals of relatively normal weight who have excess fat in particular body areas. Having firm, elastic skin will result in a better final contour after liposuction. Skin that has diminished tone due to stretch marks, weight loss, or natural aging will not reshape itself to the new contours and may require additional surgical techniques to remove and tighten excess skin. Body-contour irregularities due to structures other than fat cannot be improved by this technique. Liposuction by itself will not improve areas of dimpled skin known as “cellulite.”
Suction-assisted lipectomy surgery is performed by using a hollow metal surgical instrument known as a cannula that is inserted through small skin incision(s) and is passed back and forth through the area of fatty deposit. The cannula is attached to a vacuum source, which provides the suction needed to remove the fatty tissue.
In some situations, a special cannula may be used that emits ultrasonic energy to break down fatty deposits. This technique is known as ultrasound-assisted lipectomy. Depending on your needs, your surgeon may recommend suction-assisted lipectomy alone, or in combination with ultrasound-assisted lipectomy.
There are a variety of different techniques used by plastic surgeons for liposuction and care following surgery. Liposuction may be performed under local or general anesthesia. Tumescent liposuction technique involves the infiltration of fluid containing dilute local anesthetic and epinephrine into areas of fatty deposits. This technique can reduce discomfort at the time of surgery, blood loss, and post-operative bruising.
Support garments and dressings are worn to control swelling and promote healing. Your surgeon may recommend that you make arrangements to donate a unit of your own blood that would be used if a blood transfusion were necessary after surgery.
Alternative forms of management consist of not treating the areas of loose skin and fatty deposits. Liposuction may be a surgical alternative to abdominoplasty if there is good skin tone and localized abdominal fatty deposits in an individual of normal weight. Diet and exercise programs may be of benefit in the overall reduction of excess body fat and contour improvement. Risks and potential complications are associated with alternative surgical forms of treatment
RISKS OF MINI-ABDOMINOPLASTY SURGERY
Every surgical procedure involves a certain amount of risk and it is important that you understand the risks and the possible complications involved with mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction. In addition, every procedure has limitations. An individual’s choice to undergo a surgical procedure is based on the comparison of the risk to potential benefit. Although the majority of patients do not experience the following complications, you should discuss each of them with your plastic surgeon to make sure you understand all possible consequences of mini-abdominoplasty.
Patient Selection- Individuals with poor skin tone, medical problems, obesity, or unrealistic expectations may not be candidates for liposuction.
Bleeding- It is possible, though unusual, to experience a bleeding episode during or after surgery. Should post-operative bleeding occur, it may require an emergency treatment to drain the accumulated blood or blood transfusion. Intra-operative blood transfusions may be required. Do not take any aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for ten days before surgery, as this may increase the risk of bleeding. Non-prescription “herbs” and dietary supplements can increase the risk of surgical bleeding. Hematoma can occur at any time following injury. If blood transfusions are needed to treat blood loss, there is a risk of blood related infections such as hepatitis and the HIV (AIDS). Heparin medications that are used to prevent blood clots in veins can produce bleeding and decreased blood platelets.
Infection Infection is unusual after surgery. There is a greater risk of infection when body contouring procedures are performed in conjunction with abdominal surgical procedures. Should an infection occur, additional treatment including antibiotics, hospitalization, or additional surgery may be necessary. In extremely rare instances, life-threatening infections, including toxic shock syndrome have been noted after liposuction surgery.
Change in Skin Sensation- It is common to experience diminished (or loss) of skin sensation in areas that have had surgery. Diminished (or complete loss of skin sensation) may not totally resolve after an mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction.
Skin Contour Irregularities- Contour and shape irregularities and depressions may occur after a mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction. Visible and palpable wrinkling of skin can occur. Residual skin irregularities at the ends of the incisions or “dog ears” are always a possibility as is skin pleating when there is excessive redundant skin. This may improve with time, or it can be surgically corrected.
Major Wound Separation- Wounds may separate after surgery. Should this occur, additional treatment including surgery may be necessary.
Skin Discoloration / Swelling- Bruising and swelling normally occurs following a mini-abdominoplasty and liposction. The skin in or near the surgical site can appear either lighter or darker than surrounding skin. Although uncommon, swelling and skin discoloration may persist for long periods of time and, in rare situations, may be permanent.
Skin Sensitivity- Itching, tenderness, or exaggerated responses to hot or cold temperatures may occur after surgery. Usually this resolve during healing, but in rare situations it may be chronic.
Sutures- Most surgical techniques use deep sutures. You may notice these sutures after your surgery. Sutures may spontaneously poke through the skin, become visible or produce irritation that requires removal.
Damage to Deeper Structures- There is the potential for injury to deeper structures including nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and lungs (pneumothorax) during any surgical procedure. The potential for this to occur varies according to the type of procedure being performed. Injury to deeper structures may be temporary or permanent.
Fat Necrosis- Fatty tissue found deep in the skin might die. This may produce areas of firmness within the skin. Additional surgery to remove areas of fat necrosis may be necessary. There is the possibility of contour irregularities in the skin that may result from fat necrosis.
Umbilicus- Malposition, scarring, unacceptable appearance or loss of the umbilicus (navel) may occur.
Pubic Distortion- It is possible, though unusual, for women to develop distortion of their labia and pubic area. Should this occur, additional treatment including surgery may be necessary.
Scarring- All surgery leaves scars, some more visible than others. Although good wound healing after a surgical procedure is expected, abnormal scars may occur within the skin and deeper tissues. Scars may be unattractive and of different color than surrounding skin. Scar appearance may also vary within the same scar, exhibit contour variations or “bunching” due to the amount of excess skin. Scars may be asymmetrical (appear different between right and left side of the body). There is the possibility of visible marks in the skin from sutures. In some cases scars may require surgical revision or treatment.
Surgical Anesthesia- Both local and general anesthesia involve risk. There is the possibility of complications, injury, and even death from all forms of surgical anesthesia or sedation.
Allergic Reactions- In rare cases, local allergies to tape, suture material and glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents have been reported. Serious systemic reactions including shock (anaphylaxis) may occur to drugs used during surgery and prescription medications. Allergic reactions may require additional treatment.
Asymmetry- Symmetrical body appearance may not result from mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction. Factors such as skin tone, fatty deposits, skeletal prominence, and muscle tone may contribute to normal asymmetry in body features. Additional surgery may be necessary to attempt to improve asymmetry.
– Wound disruption or delayed wound healing is possible. Some areas of the abdomen may not heal normally and may take a
Delayed Healing long time to heal. Some areas of skin or tissue may die. This may require frequent dressing changes or further surgery to remove the non-healed tissue. Smokers have a greater risk of skin loss and wound healing complications.
Seroma- Fluid accumulations infrequently occur in between the skin and the abdominal wall or in the areas where the liposuction was performed. This may require additional procedures for drainage of fluid.
Shock- In rare circumstances, your surgical procedure can cause severe trauma, particularly when multiple or extensive procedures are performed. Although serious complications are infrequent, infections or excessive fluid loss can lead to severe illness and even death. If surgical shock occurs, hospitalization and additional treatment would be necessary. Individuals undergoing liposuction procedures where a large volume of fat is removed are at greater risk of complications. Patients contemplating large volume liposuction, greater than 5000 cc’s, may be advised to have postoperative monitoring and aftercare that involves overnight hospitalization.
Surgical Wetting Solutions-There is the possibility that large volumes of fluid containing dilute local anesthetic drugs and epinephrine that is injected into fatty deposits during surgery may contribute to fluid overload or systemic reaction to these medications. Additional treatment including hospitalization may be necessary.
Persistent Swelling (Lymphedema)- Persistent swelling in the legs can occur following mini-abdominoplasty.
Pain- You will experience pain after your surgery. Pain of varying intensity and duration may occur and persist after mini-abdominoplasty and liposuction. Chronic pain may occur very infrequently from nerves becoming trapped in scar tissue after mini-abdominoplasty.
Unsatisfactory Result- Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. You may be disappointed with the results of mini-abdomioplasty and liposuction surgery. This would include risks such as asymmetry, unsatisfactory or highly visible surgical scar location, unacceptable visible deformities, bunching and rippling in the skin near the suture lines or at the ends of the incisions (dog ears), poor healing, wound disruption, and loss of sensation. It may not be possible to correct or improve the effects of surgical scars. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a single surgical procedure. Additional surgery may be required to improve results.
Deep Venous Thrombosis, Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications- Surgery, especially longer procedures, may be associated with the formation of, or increase in, blood clots in the venous system. Fat embolism syndrome occurs when fat droplets are trapped in the lungs. This is a very rare and possibly fatal complication of suction-assisted Lipectomy. Pulmonary complications may occur secondarily to both blood clots (pulmonary emboli), fat deposits (fat emboli) or partial collapse of the lungs after general anesthesia. Pulmonary and fat emboli can be life-threatening or fatal in some circumstances. Air travel, inactivity and other conditions may increase the incidence of blood clots traveling to the lungs causing a major blood clot that may result in death. It is important to discuss with your physician any past history of blood clots, swollen legs or the use of estrogen or birth control pills that may contribute to this condition. Cardiac complications are a risk with any surgery and anesthesia, even in patients without symptoms. Should any of these complications occur, you may require hospitalization and additional treatment. If you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart beats, seek medical attention immediately.
Tumescent Liposuction-There is the possibility that large volumes of fluid containing dilute local anesthetic drugs and epinephrine that is injected into fatty deposits during surgery may contribute to fluid overload or systemic reaction to these medications. Additional treatment including hospitalization may be necessary.
Ultrasound-Assisted Lipectomy- Risks associated with the use of this technique include the above mentioned risks and the following specific risks:
Burns- Ultrasonic energy may produce burns and tissue damage either at the location where the cannula is inserted into the skin or in other areas if the cannula touches the undersurface of the skin for prolonged periods of time. If burns occur, additional treatment and surgery may be necessary.
Cannula Fragmentation- Ultrasonic energy produced within the cannula may cause disintegration (fragmentation) of the surgical instrument. The occurrence and effect of this is unpredictable. Should this occur, additional treatment including surgery may be necessary.
Unknown Risks-The long-term effect on tissue and organs to exposure to short-duration, high-intensity ultrasonic energy is unknown. There is the possibility that additional risk factors of ultrasound-assisted liposuction may be discovered.
Long-Term Results- Subsequent alterations in the appearance of your body may occur as the result of aging, sun exposure, weight loss, weight gain, pregnancy, menopause or other circumstances not related to your surgery.
Body-Piercing Procedures- Individuals who currently wear body-piercing jewelry or are seeking to undergo body-piercing procedures must consider the possibility that an infection could develop anytime following this procedure. Treatment including antibiotics, hospitlalization or additional surgery may be necessary.
Female Patient Information- It is important to inform your plastic surgeon if you use birth control pills, estrogen replacement, or if you suspect you may be pregnant. Many medications including antibiotics may neutralize the preventive effect of birth control pills, allowing for conception and pregnancy.
Intimate Relations After Surgery- Surgery involves coagulating of blood vessels and increased activity of any kind may open these vessels leading to a bleed, or hematoma. Increased activity that increased your pulse or heart rate may cause additional bruising, swelling, and the need for return to surgery and control bleeding. It is wise to refrain from sexual activity until your physician states it is safe.
Medications- There are many adverse reactions that occur as the result of taking over-the-counter, herbal, and/or prescription medications. Be sure to check with your physician about any drug interactions that may exist with medications that you are already taking. If you have an adverse reaction, stop the drugs immediately and call your plastic surgeon for further instructions. If the reaction is severe, go immediately to the nearest emergency room. When taking the prescribed pain medications after surgery, realize that they can affect your thought process and coordination. Do not drive, do not operate complex equipment, do not make any important decisions and do not drink any alcohol while taking these medications. Be sure to take your prescribed medication only as directed.
Mental Health Disorders and Elective Surgery- It is important that all patients seeking to undergo elective surgery have realistic expectations that focus on improvement rather than perfection. Complications or less than satisfactory results are sometimes unavoidable, may require additional surgery and often are stressful. Please openly discuss with your surgeon, prior to surgery, any history that you may have of significant emotional depression or mental health disorders. Although many individuals may benefit psychologically from the results of elective surgery, effects on mental health cannot be accurately predicted.
Smoking, Second-Hand Smoke Exposure, Nicotine Products (Patch, Gum, Nasal Spray)-
Patients who are currently smoking, use tobacco products, or nicotine products (patch, gum, or nasal spray) are at a greater risk for significant surgical complications of skin dying, delayed healing, and additional scarring. Individuals exposed to second-hand smoke are also at potential risk for similar complications attributable to nicotine exposure. Additionally, smokers may have a significant negative effect on anesthesia and recovery from anesthesia, with coughing and possibly increased bleeding. Individuals who are not exposed to tobacco smoke or nicotine-containing products have a significantly lower risk of this type of complication. Please indicate your current status regarding these items below:
I am a non-smoker and do not use nicotine products. I understand the risk of second-hand smoke exposure causing surgical complications.
I am a smoker or use tobacco / nicotine products. I understand the risk of surgical complications due to smoking or use of nicotine products.
It is important to refrain from smoking at least 6 weeks before surgery and until your physician states it is safe to return, if desired.
ADDITIONAL SURGERY NECESSARY / RE-OPERATIONS
There are many variable conditions that may influence the long-term result of surgery. Should complications occur, additional surgery or other treatments may be necessary. Secondary surgery may be necessary to obtain optimal results. Even though risks and complications occur infrequently, the risks cited are particularly associated with mini-abdominoplasty. Other complications and risks can occur but are even more uncommon. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a single surgical procedure.
Follow all physician instructions carefully; this is essential for the success of your outcome. It is important that the surgical incisions are not subjected to excessive force, swelling, abrasion, or motion during the time of healing. Personal and vocational activity needs to be restricted. Protective dressings and drains should not be removed unless instructed by your plastic surgeon. Successful post-operative function depends on both surgery and subsequent care. Physical activity that increases your pulse or heart rate may cause bruising, swelling, fluid accumulation and the need for return to surgery. It is wise to refrain from intimate physical activities after surgery until your physician states it is safe. It is important that you participate in follow-up care, return for aftercare, and promote your recovery after surgery.
Most health insurance companies exclude coverage for cosmetic surgical operations such as mini-abdominoplasty or any complications that might occur from surgery. Please carefully review your health insurance subscriber-information pamphlet or contact your insurance company for a detailed explanation of their policies for covering abdominoplasty procedures. Most insurance plans exclude coverage for secondary or revisionary surgery.
The cost of surgery involves several charges for the services provided. The total includes fees charged by your surgeon, the cost of surgical supplies, anesthesia, laboratory tests, and possible outpatient hospital charges, depending on where the surgery is performed. Depending on whether the cost of surgery is covered by an insurance plan, you will be responsible for necessary co-payments, deductibles, and charges not covered. The fees charged for this procedure do not include any potential future costs for additional procedures that you elect to have or require in order to revise, optimize, or complete your outcome. Additional costs may occur should complications develop from the surgery. Secondary surgery or hospital day-surgery charges involved with revision surgery will also be your responsibility. In signing the consent for this surgery/procedure, you acknowledge that your have been informed about its risk and consequences and accept responsibility for the clinical decisions that were made along with the financial costs of all future treatments.
Informed-consent documents are used to communicate information about the proposed surgical treatment of a disease or condition along with disclosure of risks and alternative forms of treatment(s), including no surgery. The informed-consent process attempts to define principles of risk disclosure that should generally meet the needs of most patients in most circumstances.
However, informed-consent documents should not be considered all inclusive in defining other methods of care and risks encountered. Your plastic surgeon may provide you with additional or different information which is based on all the facts in your particular case and the current state of medical knowledge.
Informed-consent documents are not intended to define or serve as the standard of medical care. Standards of medical care are determined on the basis of all of the facts involved in an individual case and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and as practice patterns evolve.
It is important that you read the above information carefully and have all of your questions answered before signing the consent on the next page.
CONSENT FOR SURGERY / PROCEDURE or TREATMENT
1. I hereby authorize Boris Volshteyn MD and associates and assistants of his choice at the Hospital, his office, or Ambulatory Surgery Center to perform the following operations, procedures or treatments
MINI ABDOMINOPLASTY and LIPOSUCTION
2. Dr. Boris Volshteyn, or one of his associates fully explained to me the nature and purposes of the procedure and has also informed me of expected benefits and complications (from known and unknown causes), attendant discomforts and risks that may arise, as well as possible alternatives to the proposed treatment and I willingly assume them. Also, probable duration of incapacitation, potential problems related to recuperation, if any, and medically significant alternative methods of care have been explained to me before making this decision.
3. I was counseled on appropriate risks, complications, and alternatives, including but not limited to infection, swelling, pain, bleeding, scarring, scar or wound enlargement, keloid formation, asymmetry, temporary or permanent alteration in sensation, allergic reaction, discoloration and the need for additional or multiple surgery
4. I understand the explanation that I received is not exhaustive and that during the course of the operation or procedure unforeseen conditions may arise which necessitate procedures different from those contemplated. I therefore authorize the above physician and assistants or designees to perform such other operations and procedures that are in the exercise of his or her professional judgment necessary and desirable. The authority granted under this paragraph shall include all conditions that require treatment and are not known to my physician at the time the procedure is begun.
5. For the purpose of advancing medical knowledge and education, I consent to photographing, videotaping or televising of the operation or procedure to be performed. That includes but not limited to still or motion pictures and closed circuit television. I hereby grant permission for the use of any record, illustration, photograph or other imaging record created in my case, for use in examination, testing, credentialing and certifying purposes, scientific research and publications, or justification of treatment including but not limited to ABPS, American Board of Plastic Surgery and ASPS, American Society for Plastic Surgery and specifically wave any rights of compensation or privileges associated therewith. I also consent to the admission to the operating or treatment room.
6. Any organs or tissues surgically removed may be examined and retained by the Hospital / Ambulatory Center/Pathology Lab for medical, scientific, or educational purposes and such tissues or parts may be disposed of in accordance with custom and practice.
7. I acknowledge that no guarantees or assurances have been made to me concerning the results intended from the operation or procedure or anesthesia.
8. I understand that it may be required to administer anesthetics for the abovementioned procedure. The type of anesthesia may include a combination of local subcutaneous anesthetic infiltration (with or without epinephrine), sedation (the method of delivery is intravenous or mask), or general, including intubations (placing a breathing tube). I also recognize the circumstances may change necessitating another type or mode of delivery of anesthesia. I also authorize changes to another form of anesthesia as is considered necessary for my or the patient well being during this operation, procedure or treatment. I recognize that there are risks to life and health associated with anesthesia and such risks as well as benefits and alternatives have been fully explained to me and I have had a chance to ask and have my questions answered.
9. I am aware that among those who attend patients is medical, nursing and other health care personnel in training, who unless requested otherwise, may participate in-patient care as a part of their education. I further consent to the presence of service representatives and/or technicians from manufacturers of equipment or devices to assist in performing and/or operation of such equipment and/or devices during operation, procedure and treatment, including but not limited to CO2 laser.
10. If I have a DNR/DNI in place I consent to the suspension of the DNR/DNI during the above named operation, procedure or treatment.
11. I consent to the administration of blood, blood components and/or derivatives, medications, treatments and therapies as may be deemed advisable in the judgments of the attending physician or designated associates or assistants. The reasonably foreseeable risks and benefits involved in my/patient’s receipt of such medications, therapies, and administration of blood, blood components and / or derivatives had been explained to me. I understand that the risks of receiving blood, blood components or derivatives, including but not limited to the transmission of HIV or hepatitis infection, other blood borne infections, exists despite the fact the blood had been tested. The alternatives of not receiving this therapy had been explained to me. Should I, or the patient, be administered blood, blood components and / or derivatives, I agree to report any signs or symptoms of disease to my doctor or to the Blood Bank.
12. I authorize the release of my Social Security Number to appropriate agencies for legal reporting and medical device registration, if applicable.
13. I confirm that I have read fully understand all above and that all blank spaces were completed prior to my signing. I have crossed out any paragraphs which do not pertain to me.
14. I understand that the surgeons’ fees are separate from the anesthesia and hospital charges, and the fees are agreeable to me. If a secondary procedure is necessary, further expenditure will be required.
15 I realize that not having the operation is an option.
16. I have received, read and initialed the following information sheet: INFORMED CONSENT – MINI ABDOMINOPLASTY and LIPOSUCTION provided by the doctor. I consent to the treatment or procedure and the above listed items 1-16. I had been given the opportunity to ask additional questions and I am satisfied with the explanation. . I wish to proceed.