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INSTRUCTIONS

This informed-consent document has been prepared to help inform you of breast reconstruction with a tissue expander, its risks, and alternative treatment.

It is important that you read this information carefully and completely. Please initial each page, indicating that you have read the page, and sign the consent for surgery as proposed by your plastic surgeon and agreed upon by you.

GENERAL INFORMATION

There is a variety of surgical techniques for breast reconstruction. Breast cancer patients who are medically appropriate for breast reconstruction may consider tissue expander breast reconstruction, either immediately following mastectomy or at a later time. The best candidates, however, are women whose breast cancer, as far as can be determined, seems to be eliminated by mastectomy and other treatments.

Breast reconstruction has no known effect on altering the natural history of breast cancer or interfering with other forms of breast cancer treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation.

Breast reconstruction with tissue expansion is a two-stage process. It first involves the use of a silicone rubber balloon-like tissue expander that is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle. Saline gradually is injected into the tissue expander to fill it over a period of weeks or months. This process allows the skin on the chest to be stretched over the expander, creating a breast mound. In most cases, once the skin has been stretched enough, the expander is surgically removed and replaced with a permanent breast implant. Some tissue expanders are designed to be left in place as a breast implant.

There are legitimate reasons to delay breast reconstruction. Some women may be advised by their surgeon or oncologist to wait until other forms of necessary cancer treatment are completed or disease staging has been accomplished. Other patients may require more complex breast reconstruction procedures. Women who smoke or who have other health conditions such as obesity may be advised to postpone surgery. Individuals with a weakened immune system (currently receiving chemotherapy or drugs to suppress the immune system), conditions that interfere with blood clotting or wound healing, or have reduced blood supply to the breast tissue from prior surgery or radiation therapy treatments may be at greater risk for complications and poor surgical outcome. In any case, being informed of your options concerning breast reconstruction can help you prepare for a mastectomy with a more positive outlook on the future.

The shape and size of your breasts prior to surgery will influence both the recommended placement of the tissue expander and the final shape of your reconstructed breast. Tissue expander breast reconstruction cannot produce an exact replica of the removed breast. Breast symmetry surgery on the opposite breast may be needed to produce similar size. The nipple and darker skin surrounding it, called the areola, may be reconstructed in a subsequent procedure after the breast mound is created through tissue expansion.

As of May 2000, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) have approved saline-filled breast implant and tissue expander devices for use in breast augmentation and reconstruction. Breast implants and tissue expanders that contain silicone gel are currently restricted to women who meet eligibility criteria to participate in approved study programs.

Patients undergoing breast surgery with tissue expanders and implants must consider the following:

  • Breast augmentation or reconstruction with implants may not be a one-time surgery.
  • Breast implants and tissue expanders of any type are not considered lifetime devices. They cannot be expected to last forever. You will likely require future surgery for implant replacement or removal.
  • Changes that occur to the breasts following augmentation or reconstruction with implants are not reversible. There may be an unacceptable appearance to the breast if you later choose to have breast implants or tissue expander removed.

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS

Breast reconstruction with tissue expander is an elective surgical operation. Alternative treatments would consist of the use of external breast prostheses or padding, breast reconstruction without tissue expansion, or the transfer of other body tissues for breast reconstruction. Potential risks and complications are associated with alternative surgical forms of treatment.

RISKS OF BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH TISSUE EXPANDER

Every surgical procedure involves a certain amount of risk, and it is important that you understand the risks involved with breast reconstruction with tissue expander. In addition, every procedure has limitations. An individual’s choice to undergo a surgical procedure is based on the comparison of the risk to potential benefit. While the majority of women do not experience these complications, you should discuss each of them with your plastic surgeon to make sure you understand the risks, potential complications, and consequences of breast reconstruction with tissue expander.

Problems associated with breast implants and tissue expanders can be inherent to this type of implanted medical device or relate to complications of a surgical procedure. Patients considering surgery that involves breast implants and tissue expanders should review additional advisory information regarding this subject. Additional information concerning breast implants and tissue expanders may be obtained from the FDA, package-insert sheets supplied by the device manufacturer, or other information pamphlets required by individual state laws.

While every patient experiences her own individual risks and benefits following tissue expander breast reconstruction, clinical data suggests that most women will be satisfied with the outcome of surgery despite the occurrence of problems inherent with breast implant and tissue expander surgery.

Inherent Risks of Saline-Filled Breast Implants / Tissue Expanders

  • Tissue Expander / Implants – Tissue expanders and implants, similar to other medical devices, can fail. Tissue expanders and implants can break or leak. When a saline-filled implant or tissue expander ruptures, the body absorbs the saline material, but the shell material remains. Rupture can occur because of an injury, from no apparent cause (silent rupture), or during mammography. It is possible to damage a tissue expander or implant at the time of surgery or subsequently with a needle during the insertion of saline into the device. Damaged, leaking, or broken tissue expanders and implants cannot be repaired and require replacement or removal. Breast implants and tissue expanders can wear out, they are not guaranteed to last a lifetime and future surgery may be required to replace one or both implants. A MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) study may be necessary to evaluate the possibility of device rupture or deflation, yet may not be 100% accurate in diagnosing integrity. Saline-filled breast implants may not have the same contour or feel as silicone-filled breast implants. The shape of your breasts after surgery depends on many factors such as your skin thickness, position, placement of the implants or expanders, and technique. You should discuss with your surgeon the possibility of a different and less than desirable contour-shape as well as feel of your result.

  • Capsular Contracture – Scar tissue, which forms internally around the tissue expander, can tighten and make the breast round, firm, and possibly painful. Excessive firmness of the breasts can occur soon after surgery or years later. The occurrence of symptomatic capsular contracture is not predictable. The incidence of symptomatic capsular contracture can be expected to increase over time. Capsular contracture may occur on one side, both sides or not at all. It is more common with tissue expander placement in front of the chest muscle layer. Treating capsular contracture may require surgery, tissue expander replacement, or tissue expander removal. Capsular contracture may reoccur after surgical procedures to treat this condition.

  • Implant Extrusion / Tissue Necrosis – Lack of adequate tissue coverage or infection may result in exposure and extrusion of the tissue expander or implant through the skin. Tissue breakdown (necrosis) has been reported with the use of steroid drugs, after chemotherapy/radiation to breast tissue, due to smoking, microwave diathermy, and excessive heat or cold therapy. In some cases, incision sites fail to heal normally. A tissue expander or implant may become visible at the surface of the breast as a result of the device pushing though layers of skin. If tissue breakdown occurs and the tissue expander or implant becomes exposed, removal may be necessary. Permanent scar deformity may occur.

  • Change in Nipple and Skin Sensation – Breast reconstruction cannot restore normal sensation to the breast or nipple. Changes in sensation may affect sexual response or the ability to breast-feed a baby.

  • Skin Wrinkling and Rippling – Visible and palpable wrinkling of implants or tissue expanders and breast skin can occur. Some wrinkling is normal and expected. This may be more pronounced in patients who have saline-filled implants with textured surfaces or thin tissue. It may be possible to feel the tissue expander fill valve. Some patients may find palpable valve and wrinkles cosmetically undesirable. Palpable valve, wrinkling and/or folds may be confused with palpable tumors and questionable cases must be investigated.

  • Calcification – Calcium deposits can form in the scar tissue surrounding the tissue expander and may cause pain, firmness, and be visible on mammography. These deposits must be identified as different from calcium deposits that are a sign of breast cancer. Should this occur, additional surgery may be necessary to remove and examine calcifications.

  • Chest Wall Irregularities – Chest wall irregularities have been reported secondary to the use of tissue expanders and breast implants. Residual skin irregularities at the ends of the incisions or “dog ears” are always a possibility when there is excessive redundant skin. This may improve with time, or it can be surgically corrected.

  • Implant Displacement and Tissue Stretching – Displacement, rotation, or migration of a breast implant or tissue expander may occur from its initial placement and can be accompanied by discomfort and/or distortion in breast shape (visible rippling of the skin). Unusual techniques of placement may increase the risk of displacement or migration. Additional surgery may be necessary to attempt to correct this problem. It may not be possible to resolve this problem once it has occurred.

  • Surface Contamination – Skin oil, lint from surgical drapes, or talc may become deposited on the surface of the tissue expander or implant at the time of insertion. The consequences of this are unknown.

  • Unusual Activities and Occupations – Activities and occupations that have the potential for trauma to the breast could potentially break or damage a tissue expander or implant, or cause bleeding/seroma.

Inherent Surgical Risk of Tissue Expander Surgery

  • Bleeding – It is possible, though unusual, to experience a bleeding episode during or after surgery.Should post-operative bleeding occur, it may require emergency treatment to drain accumulated blood or blood transfusion. Intra-operative blood transfusion may also be required. Hematoma may contribute to capsular contracture, infection or other problems. Do not take any aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for ten days before or after surgery, as this may increase the risk of bleeding. Non-prescription “herbs” and dietary supplements can increase the risk of surgical bleeding. Hematoma can occur at any time following injury to the breast. If blood transfusions are necessary to treat blood loss, there is the risk of blood-related infections such as hepatitis and HIV (AIDS). Heparin medications that are used to prevent blood clots in veins can produce bleeding and decreased blood platelets.

  • Seroma – Fluid may accumulate around the tissue expander following surgery, trauma or vigorous exercise. Additional treatment may be necessary to drain fluid accumulation around tissue expander or implant. This may contribute to infection, capsular contracture, or other problems.

  • Infection – Although infection is unusual after this type of surgery, it may appear in the immediate post-operative period or at any time following the insertion of a tissue expander or implant. Subacute or chronic infections may be difficult to diagnose. Should an infection occur, treatment including antibiotics, possible removal of the expander/implant, or additional surgery may be necessary. Infections with the presence of a tissue expander/implant are harder to treat than infections in normal body tissues. If an infection does not respond to antibiotics, the device may have to be removed. It is extremely rare that an infection would occur around an implant or expander from a bacterial infection elsewhere in the body, however, prophylactic antibiotics may be considered for subsequent dental or other surgical procedures. In extremely rare instances, life-threatening infections, including toxic shock syndrome have been noted after tissue expander and breast implant surgery. Individuals with a active infection in their body or weakened immune system (currently receiving chemotherapy or drugs to suppress the immune system), may be at greater risk for infection.

  • Surgical Anesthesia – Both local and general anesthesia involve risk. There is the possibility of complications, injury, and even death from all forms of surgical anesthesia or sedation.

  • Scarring – All surgery leaves scars, some more visible than others. Excessive scarring is uncommon. Although good wound healing after a surgical procedure is expected, abnormal scars may occur within the skin and deeper tissues. Scars may be unattractive and of different color than the surrounding skin tone. Scar appearance may also vary within the same scar. Scars may be asymmetrical (appear different on the right and left side of the body. There is the possibility of visible marks in the skin from sutures. In some cases scars may require surgical revision or treatment.

  • Allergic Reactions – In rare cases, local allergies to tape, suture material and glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents have been reported. Serious systemic reactions including shock (anaphylaxis) may occur in response to drugs used during surgery and prescription medicines. Allergic reactions may require additional treatment.

  • Thrombosed Veins – Thrombosed veins, which resemble cords, occasionally develop in the area of the breast and resolve without medical or surgical treatment.

  • Pain – You will experience pain after your surgery. Pain of varying intensity and duration may occur and persist after tissue expander surgery. Pain may be the result of improper expander or implant size, placement, surgical technique, capsular contracture, or sensory nerve entrapment or injury. Pain may occur during and after procedures to fill the tissue expander with saline fluid. Chronic pain may occur very infrequently from nerves becoming trapped in scar tissue or due to tissue stretching.

  • Skin Discoloration / Swelling – Some bruising and swelling normally occurs after tissue expansion surgery. The skin in or near the surgical site can appear either lighter or darker than surrounding skin. Although uncommon, swelling and skin discoloration may persist for long periods of time and, in rare situations, may be permanent.

  • Sutures – Most surgical techniques use deep sutures. You may notice these sutures after your surgery. Sutures may spontaneously poke through the skin, become visible or produce irritation that requires suture removal.

  • Asymmetry – Some breast asymmetry naturally occurs in most women. Differences in terms of breast and nipple shape, size, or symmetry may also occur after surgery. Additional surgery may be necessary to attempt improvement of asymmetry.

  • Damage to Deeper Structures – There is the potential for injury to deeper structures including nerves, blood vessels and muscles and lungs (pneumothorax) during this surgical procedure. The potential for this to occur varies according to the type of procedure being performed. Injury to deeper structures may be temporary or permanent.

  • Delayed Healing – Wound disruption or delayed wound healing is possible. Some areas of the breast skin or nipple region may not heal normally and may take a long time to heal. Areas of skin or nipple tissue may die. This may require frequent dressing changes or further surgery to remove the non-healed tissue. Individuals who have decreased blood supply to breast tissue from past surgery or radiation therapy may be at increased risk for wound healing and poor surgical outcome. Smokers have a greater risk of skin loss and wound healing complications.

  • Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications – Pulmonary complications may occur secondarily to both blood clots (pulmonary emboli), fat deposits (fat emboli) or partial collapse of the lungs after general anesthesia. Pulmonary emboli can be life threatening or fatal in some circumstances. Inactivity and other conditions may increase the incidence of blood clots traveling to the lungs causing a major blood clot that may result in death. It is important to discuss with your physician any past history of swelling in your legs or blood clots that may contribute to this condition. Cardiac complications are a risk with any surgery and anesthesia, even in patients without symptoms. Should any of these complications occur, you may require hospitalization and additional treatment. If you experience after surgery shortness of breath, chest pain, or unusual heart beats, you should have this evaluated immediately

  • Shock – In rare circumstances, your surgical procedure can cause severe trauma, particularly when multiple or extensive procedures are performed. Although serious complications are infrequent, infections or excessive fluid loss can lead to severe illness and even death. If surgical shock occurs, hospitalization and additional treatment would be necessary.

  • Unsatisfactory Result – Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. You may be disappointed with the results of surgery. Asymmetry in implant/expander placement, displacement, nipple location, unanticipated breast shape and size, loss of function, wound disruption, poor healing, and loss of sensation may occur after surgery. Breast size may be incorrect and not match the opposite breast. Unsatisfactory surgical scar location may occur. Tissue expander breast reconstruction may fail due to complications attributable to the mastectomy or from later chemotherapy/radiation therapy treatments. It may be necessary to perform additional surgery to improve your results, change size or remove and not replace tissue expander/breast implant.

Additional Advisories Regarding Tissue Expander Surgery

  • Breast Disease – Current medical information does not demonstrate an increased risk of breast cancer in women who have tissue expander surgery. Individuals with a personal history or family history of breast cancer may be at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than a woman with no family history of this disease. It is recommended that all women perform periodic self-examination of their breasts, have mammography according to American Cancer Society guidelines, and seek professional care should they notice a breast lump. Care must be exercised during breast biopsy procedures to avoid damaging the tissue expander.

  • Radiation Therapy – Radiation therapy to the chest region before or after breast reconstruction with a tissue expander/breast implant can produce unacceptable firmness or other long-term complications.

  • Mammography – Breast implants and tissue expanders may make mammography more difficult and may obscure the detection of breast cancer. Any breast implant or expander can impair the detection of breast cancer, regardless of the type of implant or where it is placed in relation to the breast. Rupture can occur from breast compression during mammography. Inform your mammography technologist of the presence of breast implants or expanders so that appropriate mammogram studies may be obtained. Patients with capsular contracture may find mammogram techniques painful and the difficulty of breast imaging will increase with the extent of contracture. Ultrasound, specialized mammography and MRI studies may be of benefit to evaluate breast lumps and the condition of the expander or implant(s). Because more x-ray views are necessary with specialized mammography techniques, women with breast implants or expanders will receive more radiation than women without implants/expanders who receive a normal exam. However, the benefit of the mammogram in finding cancer outweighs the risk of additional x-rays. Patients may wish to undergo a preoperative mammogram and another one after implantation to establish a baseline view of their breast tissue. You may be advised to undergo a MRI study in the future to verify the condition of your breast implants or expanders inside your body.

  • Second-Generation Effects – A review of the published medical literature regarding potential damaging effect on children born of mothers with breast implants or tissue expanders is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions that this represents a problem.

  • Long-Term Results – Subsequent alterations in breast shape may occur as the result of aging, sun exposure, weight loss, weight gain, pregnancy, menopause, or other circumstances not related to your breast reconstruction.

  • Removal / Replacement of Tissue Expander – Tissue expander breast reconstruction is a two-step process. Removal of the tissue expander, revision of the surrounding scar tissue envelope, or replacement of tissue expander with a permanent breast implant involves surgical procedures with risks and potential complications. There may be an unacceptable appearance of the breasts following removal of the implant.

  • Immune System Diseases And Unknown Risks – A small number of women with breast implants and tissue expanders have reported symptoms similar to those of known diseases of the immune system, such as systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and other arthritis-like conditions. To date, after several large epidemiological studies of women with and without these implants, there is no scientific evidence that women with either silicone gel-filled or saline-filled breast implants/tissue expanders have an increased risk of these diseases. These diseases appear no more common in women with these implants than those women without implants. The effects of breast implants and tissue expanders in individuals with pre-existing immune system and connective-tissue disorders is unknown. There is the possibility of unknown risks associated with silicone breast implants and tissue expanders.

  • Capsule Squeeze Procedures – Closed capsulotomy, the process of forcefully squeezing the fibrous capsule around a breast implant or tissue expander to break up scarring is not recommended. This may result in rupture of the device, gel migration, bleeding, or other complications. or other complications.

  • Breast Feeding – If a woman has undergone a mastectomy, it is unlikely that she would be able to breast feed a baby on the side where the breast was removed. Although many women with breast implants and normal breast tissue have successfully breast fed their babies, it is not known if there are increased risks in nursing for a woman with breast implants.

  • Breast and Nipple Piercing Procedures – Individuals with breast implants or tissue expanders seeking to undergo body piercing procedures to the breast region must consider the possibility that an infection could develop anytime following this procedure. Should an infection occur, it is possible that it could spread to the breast implant space. Treatment including antibiotics, possible removal of the implant, or additional surgery may be necessary. Infections with the presence of a breast implant are harder to treat than infections in normal body tissues. If an infection does not respond to antibiotics, the breast implant may have to be removed. Individuals who currently wear body-piercing jewelry in the breast region are advised that a breast infection could also develop.

  • Interference with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping Procedures – Breast procedures that involve cutting through breast tissue, similar to a breast biopsy in order to place breast implants, can potentially interfere with diagnostic procedures to determine lymph node drainage of breast tissue to stage breast cancer. If this is a concern, individuals considering breast augmentation by these approaches may elect to consider another surgical approach.

  • Mental Health Disorders and Elective Surgery – It is important that all patients seeking to undergo elective surgery have realistic expectations that focus on improvement rather than perfection. Complications or less than satisfactory results are sometimes unavoidable, may require additional surgery and often are stressful. Please openly discuss with your surgeon, prior to surgery, any history that you may have of significant emotional depression or mental health disorders. Although many individuals may benefit psychologically from the results of elective surgery, effects on mental health cannot be accurately predicted.

  • Breast Implant and Expander Technology / Technologic Improvements – The technology of breast implant and expander design, development and manufacture will continue to progress and improve. Newer or future generations of implants/expanders may be better in some way from those currently available.

  • Female Patient Information – It is important to inform your plastic surgeon if you use birth control pills, estrogen replacement, or if you suspect that you are pregnant. Many medications including antibiotics may neutralize the preventive effect of birth control pills, allowing for conception and pregnancy.

  • Medications – There are potential adverse reactions that occur as the result of taking over-the-counter, herbal, and/or prescription medications. Be sure to check with your physician about any drug interactions that may exist with medications that you are already taking. If you have an adverse reaction, stop the drugs immediately and call your plastic surgeon for further instructions. If the reaction is severe, go immediately to the nearest emergency room. When taking the prescribed pain medications after surgery, realize that they can affect your thought process and coordination. Do not drive, do not operate complex equipment, do not make any important decisions, and do not drink any alcohol while taking these medications. Be sure to take your prescribed medication only as directed.

  • Smoking, Second-Hand Smoke Exposure, Nicotine Products (Patch, Gum, Nasal Spray)
    Patients who are currently smoking, use tobacco products, or nicotine products (patch, gum, or nasal spray) are at a greater risk for significant surgical complications of skin dying, delayed healing, and additional scarring. Individuals exposed to second-hand smoke are also at potential risk for similar complications attributable to nicotine exposure. Additionally, smoking may have a significant negative effect on anesthesia and recovery from anesthesia, with coughing and possibly increased bleeding. Individuals who are not exposed to tobacco smoke or nicotine-containing products have a significantly lower risk of this type of complication. Please indicate your current status regarding these items below:

    __________I am a non-smoker and do not use nicotine products. I understand the risk of second-hand smoke exposure causing surgical complications.

    __________I am a smoker or use tobacco / nicotine products. I understand the risk of surgical complications due to smoking or use of nicotine products.

    It is important to refrain from smoking at least 6 weeks before surgery and until your physician states it is safe to return, if desired.

ADDITIONAL SURGERY NECESSARY

Many variable conditions may influence the long-term result of breast reconstruction surgery with tissue expanders. It is unknown how your breast tissue may respond to implants/expanders or how wound healing will occur after surgery. Secondary surgery may be necessary at some unknown time to replace your tissue expanders / implants or to improve your outcome. You may elect to or be advised to have your breast implants/expander removed and not replaced in the future. Should complications occur, additional surgery or other treatments may be necessary. Even though risks and complications occur infrequently, the risks cited are particularly associated with breast reconstruction with tissue expander surgery. Other complications and risks can occur but are even more uncommon. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a single surgical procedure.

PATIENT COMPLIANCE

Follow all physician instructions carefully; this is essential for the success of your outcome. It is important that the surgical incisions are not subjected to excessive force, swelling, abrasion, or motion during the time of healing. Personal and vocational activity must be restricted. Protective dressings and drains should not be removed unless instructed by your plastic surgeon. Successful post-operative function depends on both surgery and subsequent care. Physical activity that increases your pulse or heart rate may cause bruising, swelling, fluid accumulation around implants and the need for return to surgery. It is wise to refrain from intimate physical activities after surgery until your physician states it is safe. It is important that you participate in follow-up care, return for aftercare, and promote your recovery after surgery.

REGULATORY MATTERS

According to USFDA regulations, you must comply with the submission of personal information to a device registry before surgery and afterwards.

HEALTH INSURANCE

Most insurance carriers consider breast reconstruction surgery a covered benefit. There may be additional requirements. Please review your health insurance subscriber-information pamphlet, call your insurance company, and discuss this further with your plastic surgeon. Most insurance plans exclude coverage for secondary or revisionary surgery or due to complications of cosmetic surgery.

FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES

The cost of surgery involves several charges for the services provided. The total includes fees charged by your surgeon, the cost of surgical supplies, anesthesia, laboratory tests, and possible outpatient hospital charges, depending on where the surgery is performed. Depending on whether the cost of surgery is covered by an insurance plan, you will be responsible for necessary co-payments, deductibles, and charges not covered. The fees charged for this procedure do not include any potential future costs for additional procedures that you elect to have or require in order to revise, optimize, or complete your outcome. Additional costs may occur should complications develop from the surgery. Secondary surgery or hospital day-surgery charges involved with revision surgery will also be your responsibility. You may be advised some time in the future to have a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to determine the condition of your breast implants. You would be responsible for future costs of such imaging studies. In signing the consent for this surgery/procedure, you acknowledge that your have been informed about its risk and consequences and accept responsibility for the clinical decisions that were made along with the financial costs of all future treatments.

DISCLAIMER

Informed-consent documents are used to communicate information about the proposed surgical treatment of a disease or condition along with disclosure of risks and alternative forms of treatment(s), including no surgery. The informed-consent process attempts to define principles of risk disclosure that should generally meet the needs of most patients in most circumstances.

However, informed-consent documents should not be considered all inclusive in defining other methods of care and risks encountered. Your plastic surgeon may provide you with additional or different information that is based on all the facts in your particular case and the current state of medical knowledge.

Informed-consent documents are not intended to define or serve as the standard of medical care. Standards of medical care are determined on the basis of all of the facts involved in an individual case and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and as practice patterns evolve.

It is important that you read the above information carefully and have all of your questions answered before signing the consent on the next page.

CONSENT FOR SURGERY / PROCEDURE or TREATMENT

  1. I hereby authorize Boris Volshteyn MD and associates and assistants of his choice at the Hospital, his office, or Ambulatory Surgery Center to perform the following operations, procedures or treatments BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH TISSUE EXPANDER

  2. Dr. Boris Volshteyn, or one of his associates fully explained to me the nature and purposes of the procedure and has also informed me of expected benefits and complications (from known and unknown causes), attendant discomforts and risks that may arise, as well as possible alternatives to the proposed treatment and I willingly assume them. Also, probable duration of incapacitation, potential problems related to recuperation, if any, and medically significant alternative methods of care have been explained to me before making this decision.

  3. I was counseled on appropriate risks, complications, and alternatives, including but not limited to infection, swelling, pain, bleeding, scarring, scar or wound enlargement, keloid formation, asymmetry, temporary or permanent alteration in sensation, allergic reaction, discoloration and the need for additional or multiple surgery

  4. I understand the explanation that I received is not exhaustive and that during the course of the operation or procedure unforeseen conditions may arise which necessitate procedures different from those contemplated. I therefore authorize the above physician and assistants or designees to perform such other operations and procedures that are in the exercise of his or her professional judgment necessary and desirable. The authority granted under this paragraph shall include all conditions that require treatment and are not known to my physician at the time the procedure is begun.

  5. For the purpose of advancing medical knowledge and education, I consent to photographing, videotaping or televising of the operation or procedure to be performed. That includes but not limited to still or motion pictures and closed circuit television. I hereby grant permission for the use of any record, illustration, photograph or other imaging record created in my case, for use in examination, testing, credentialing and certifying purposes, scientific research and publications, or justification of treatment including but not limited to ABPS, American Board of Plastic Surgery and ASPS, American Society for Plastic Surgery and specifically wave any rights of compensation or privileges associated therewith. I also consent to the admission to the operating or treatment room.

  6. Any organs or tissues surgically removed may be examined and retained by the Hospital / Ambulatory Center / Pathology Lab for medical, scientific, or educational purposes and such tissues or parts may be disposed of in accordance with custom and practice.

  7. I acknowledge that no guarantees or assurances have been made to me concerning the results intended from the operation or procedure or anesthesia.

  8. I understand that it may be required to administer anesthetics for the abovementioned procedure. The type of anesthesia may include a combination of local subcutaneous anesthetic infiltration (with or without epinephrine), sedation (the method of delivery is intravenous or mask), or general, including intubations (placing a breathing tube). I also recognize the circumstances may change necessitating another type or mode of delivery of anesthesia. I also authorize changes to another form of anesthesia as is considered necessary for my or the patient well being during this operation, procedure or treatment. I recognize that there are risks to life and health associated with anesthesia and such risks as well as benefits and alternatives have been fully explained to me and I have had a chance to ask and have my questions answered.

  9. I am aware that among those who attend patients is medical, nursing and other health care personnel in training, who unless requested otherwise, may participate in-patient care as a part of their education. I further consent to the presence of service representatives and/or technicians from manufacturers of equipment or devices to assist in performing and/or operation of such equipment and/or devices during operation, procedure and treatment, including but not limited to CO2 laser.

  10. If I have a DNR/DNI in place I consent to the suspension of the DNR/DNI during the above named operation, procedure or treatment.

  11. I consent to the administration of blood, blood components and/or derivatives, medications, treatments and therapies as may be deemed advisable in the judgments of the attending physician or designated associates or assistants. The reasonably foreseeable risks and benefits involved in my/patient’s receipt of such medications, therapies, and administration of blood, blood components and / or derivatives had been explained to me. I understand that the risks of receiving blood, blood components or derivatives, including but not limited to the transmission of HIV or hepatitis infection, other blood borne infections, exists despite the fact the blood had been tested. The alternatives of not receiving this therapy had been explained to me. Should I, or the patient, be administered blood, blood components and / or derivatives, I agree to report any signs or symptoms of disease to my doctor or to the Blood Bank.

  12. I authorize the release of my Social Security Number to appropriate agencies for legal reporting and medical device registration, if applicable.

  13. I confirm that I have read fully understand all above and that all blank spaces were completed prior to my signing. I have crossed out any paragraphs which do not pertain to me.

  14. I understand that the surgeons’ fees are separate from the anesthesia and hospital charges, and the fees are agreeable to me. If a secondary procedure is necessary, further expenditure will be required.

  15. I realize that not having the operation is an option.

  16. I have received, read and initialed the following information sheet: INFORMED CONSENT – BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH TISSUE EXPANDER provided by the doctor. I consent to the treatment or procedure and the above listed items 1-16. I had been given the opportunity to ask additional questions and I am satisfied with the explanation. I wish to proceed.